Monthly Archives: March 2014

Day 90: Oatmeal Gruel

Sandwiched between the chapter on doughnuts and the drinks part of the 1898 New Galt Cook Book is a section called Oatmeal. So far I’ve made the Milk Porridge recipe but tonight I’m trying the Oatmeal Gruel using Miss Wardlaw‘s recipe. I wasn’t surprised to find oatmeal in a cook book from Galt but I am baffled by the number of recipes for gruel rather than oatmeal porridge.

I knew I was going out tonight to speak to  a women’s group much like the one that created this cook book. I was feeling a bit under the weather today and so a simple, and probably bland, recipe appealed to me. I also knew I had time to soak the oatmeal before I left the house and could prepare the gruel when I returned home. Since I expect this to be awful I decided to make just half the recipe. I put 1 cup (1/2 pint) of my coarse Scottish style oatmeal in a bowl with 2 cups (1/2 quart) of water. I left it on the counter to soak while I was away. I returned home after speaking to a wonderful group of women about this cook book. The oatmeal had been soaking for about four hours so it was ready to strain. My strainer has been taking a beating lately and so I decided to try an alternative. I simply picked up the oatmeal in my hand and squeezed out the liquid. I kept doing that until I’d removed all the oatmeal. It was at this point I wondered if there was anything I could do with this “used” oatmeal since it is the liquid I wanted. I set it aside and did a final straining through my fingers as I poured the liquid into a saucepan. I suspect my method of straining is what people did who couldn’t afford a kitchen full of equipment. Besides … it worked!

I set the saucepan on medium heat and brought it to the boil. At this point I tasted the liquid, and although it was watery, it tasted simply of oatmeal. It wasn’t too bad. I thought that perhaps it should be a bit thicker so I let it boil for a few minutes and it did thicken somewhat. I started to add the nutmeg, sugar and salt. This has to be by taste. I didn’t put very much nutmeg or salt in and then added about a teaspoon of sugar. I tasted a tiny bit and seemed okay so I proceeded to the next step. I put 1 tablespoon of cream in a glass and then poured in the gruel. I stirred and steeled myself to taste Oatmeal Gruel for the first time.

What do you think of when you hear the word gruel? I suspect it is not a positive image. I think of Dickens’ Oliver Twist and Bronte’s Jane Eyre both of them orphans living in terrible situations. However, based on other recipes in this section of the cook book, gruels are for sick people, particularly those with digestive complaints. This probably would help someone who can’t manage solid food for whatever reason.

This invalid feeder is part of the collection of the Museum of Healthcare in Kingston.

This invalid feeder is part of the collection of the Museum of Healthcare in Kingston.

It could be drunk, spoon fed or even put in an invalid feeder sometimes called a pap cup or boat. They were a bit like a child’s sippy cup since they were partially covered and had a spout for drinking. Some look a bit like a gravy boat. They could be used for liquid or semi liquid food. The patient sips from the spout or the person nursing could just slowly pour the liquid into a patient’s mouth as long as they were capable of swallowing it. They were also a way to introduce food or “pap” to a baby. I visited the Museum of Health Care in Kingston Ontario this winter and they have all sorts of interesting artifacts and exhibits. Check it out here.

A glass of gruel

A glass of gruel

I guess if I needed digestible food then Miss Wardlaw’s Oatmeal Gruel would be okay but I missed the texture of oatmeal. I think I prefer the gruel without sugar, salt, or nutmeg. The nutmeg is an interesting idea for oatmeal. I’m accustomed to cinnamon with oatmeal so I might try using nutmeg the next time I make porridge. Sipping gruel or even using a spoon is a bit like trying some of the meal replacement drinks and protein shakes. There’s just something missing. I continued to sip as it cooled and it was still palatable if not exciting.

For all my discussion of the palatability of Oatmeal Gruel it is important to realize how important these types of recipes were for so many women in 1898. Their loved ones could die from diseases that are preventable or treatable in 2014. Just like today they were desperate to try to keep their loved ones alive even when it seemed there was no hope. Getting some nourishment into the sick or injured person could mean they would live. Miss Wardlaw was a nurse and would have lots of experience with this sort of feeding. Three weeks ago I made her recipe for another easy to eat food called panada. Margaret “Maggie” Wardlaw was born in 1862 to Scottish born parents. She grew up in Galt Ontario and it looks like she was the only girl in the family. The eldest of her three brothers became a doctor. Eventually after working as a nurse, she ends up living with this brother and perhaps acting as his nurse in his practice. At some point she ends up in Newmarket and that’s where she dies at the age of 70.

OATMEAL GRUEL

Miss Wardlaw

Soak one pint of oatmeal in one quart of water for some hours, then strain and boil. Flavor with nutmeg, sugar and salt. Have two tablespoons of cream in a tumbler. Pour in the gruel, stir and serve.

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Day 89: Ham Toast

Today was the end of my long week at work so I’m looking for an easy and quick recipe for supper tonight. Browsing through the 1898 New Galt Cook Book I found a recipe for Ham Toast. It was contributed by Mrs. D. Howell. I have some ham so I thought I’d try the recipe.

Recipe

Recipe

This is one of those recipes that requires the cook to use some judgement. How much ham is needed? How many will the recipe serve? I decided that since the eggs are the only measured aspect of the recipe, I’d start with them. I don’t particularly like eggs so I’m going to cut the recipe in half. I beat one medium egg and added some pepper to it. I finely chopped some ham and kept adding it to the egg until I had an appropriate amount. I decided to use 1/4 cup of ham. Next I put a teaspoon of butter in a frying pan, turned the heat to medium and let the butter melt before adding the egg and ham mixture. I put a piece of bread on to toast so that it would be ready. I wasn’t sure whether to stir the ham and egg but decided that since it is supposed to be spread on toast it was okay to scramble it. Once the egg was setting I removed the pan from the heat. I decided to butter the slice of toast and then spread the ham and egg on top. Time for that first bite.

Mrs. D. Howell was a bit tricky to find. However, I think she is Sarah Louise Spencer the recent widow of Daniel Howell. Sarah was born around 1829 in Lancashire England. She must have emigrated to Canada sometime before 1851 since that census shows her already married at 24 and working alongside her husband Daniel as a book seller in Galt Ontario. Soon their little girl Mary Alice was born but died when she was about eight months old. Three years later their son Henry Spencer is born. From then on the census shows the three members of the family along with a female servant. Daniel becomes a manufacturer and dies at age 69 of apoplexy which today is called a stroke. By this time their son Henry better known as Harry is married with a son of his own but living with his parents. This arrangement continues after Daniel’s death in 1889. Some time after this Sarah contributes this recipe along with several others for a community cook book. Sarah dies in 1909 when she is around 80.

Mrs. D. Howell's Ham Toast ready to eat.

Mrs. D. Howell’s Ham Toast ready to eat.

Mrs. Howell’s Ham Toast is basically the way I make scrambled eggs. The egg is just there to hold the rest of the ingredients together. I could have used even more ham but my amounts were just right for topping one slice of toast made from a modern loaf of sliced bread. When I tasted I realized why just pepper is added. The ham provides lots of salt to the rest of the ingredients. This was a good reminder that a quick supper or lunch can be created from just a few simple ingredients.

HAM TOAST
Mrs. D. Howell.

Chop some lean ham fine, put it in a pan with a little pepper, a lump of butter, and two eggs beaten. When well warmed, spread on toast.

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Day 88: Delightful Pudding

Yesterday I made potatoes and have some leftovers. I looked at the potato recipes that call for cold potatoes but nothing seemed right. I then remembered that there was a recipe in the pudding section of The New Galt Cook Book (1898) that used mashed potatoes. I found the recipe called Delightful Pudding which was contributed by Mrs. A. Taylor. Based on the ingredients and preparation method I will be extremely surprised if this is a delightful or even an edible pudding.

I peeled two of last night’s potatoes and mashed them. I know they might add a bit of salt to the recipe but decided it wouldn’t matter in this recipe and might even help. The next issue was determining what half a tumbler would be in modern measurements. A tumbler is a drinking glass. I looked at my glasses and decided that a tumbler was about one cup so half a tumbler was half a cup. I put 1/2 cup of mashed potatoes in a bowl. I added 1/2 cup of flour and mixed well. I dropped in a “piece” of butter that was about 1/2 tablespoon and tried to stir that in too.

Delightful Pudding fresh from the oven

Delightful Pudding fresh from the oven

Meanwhile I had almost one quart (4 cups) of milk heating on the stove. I didn’t have quite enough milk but it still seems like a lot of milk. Once it was hot I removed it from the burner and poured it in with the other ingredients. It was challenging to stir and eliminate lumps of floury potato. While it was cooling I beat three medium eggs in another bowl and then added them to the potato mixture. There is so much liquid that I have no idea how this is ever supposed to turn into a pudding. I poured it all into a large casserole dish and put it into a preheated 350 degree F. oven. I left it to bake for 30 minutes. It appeared set when I removed it from the oven. I set it down and prepared to spoon some onto a plate.

Mrs. A. Taylor is a prolific contributor of recipes for The New Galt Cook Book and in many different sections. She grew up as Maggie Fisher in Galt Ontario but was born in Castleton Scotland around 1849. Her family set sail for Canada when she was about 5 and I can’t imagine what it must have been like for her parents Alexander and Georgina travelling such a distance with all their children including two under five. By the time the family appears in the 1861 Canadian census they are living in Galt and Alexander has died. Maggie’s mother has four children living with her including an adult son George who is a merchant. In 1871 Maggie lives at home with her mother, and two brothers Angus listed as a store keeper and James a finisher. She might have met her future husband through her neighbours a young couple by the name of Taylor. Maggie married Alfred Taylor whom she had married by 1877 when their first child Robert was born. Alfred E. was born in 1879. The 1881 census shows this little family as well as a 21-year-old servant named Emma McMahon. A daughter Margaret Alice arrived in 1883 but three years later nine-year old Robert died of pneumonia. Many years later in 1904 young Alfred E died of appendicitis at the age of 25.   However, in 1891 just prior to the first edition of the Galt Cook Book, that death was in the future. Maggie’s husband has a dry goods store and both remaining children were living at home. The household includes a servant  Mary Gelfillian (20) and a young man Hugh Robertson (23) who appears to be a labourer.

My serving of Delightful Pudding.

My serving of Delightful Pudding.

Delightful Pudding is strange. This is basically a custard with potatoes in it. I didn’t bother adding cream to my serving but I did sprinkle some sugar on top. This helped a bit but it is still custard with potatoes. It wasn’t as horrible as I’d imagined as the custard was okay but the thickened potatoes had sunk to the bottom. I glad I used my salted potatoes as it would have been very bland.

DELIGHTFUL PUDDING
Mrs. A. Taylor

One half tumbler of mashed potatoes, the same of flour, a small piece of butter. Mix with a little milk. Then pour over this one quart boiling milk. When cool add three well beaten eggs, and bake half an hour. To be eaten with cream and sugar.

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Day 87: To Cook Potatoes

Tonight’s is the only recipe attributed to a man – Mr. John Goldie. The New Galt Cook Book (1898) also says the recipe is endorsed by Mr. Strong. So what is this important recipe? It is titled To Cook Potatoes.

Boiling Potatoes

Boiling Potatoes

Normally I buy a bag of Ontario white potatoes at the grocery store or some local Russet or white potatoes at the Kitchener market but this time I found potatoes labelled Canadian boiling potatoes at my store. I bought some to use in this recipe. I washed five potatoes and cut out any eyes. I put them in a pot and covered them with cold water. I grabbed a hand full of salt and tossed that in the water too. I covered the pot and turned the heat up. I left them to boil for about 30 minutes and then started checking them. After ten more minutes I felt they were fork tender so I removed the pot from the heat and drained the water. I added another handful of salt and covered the pot again. I shook the pot to help coat the potatoes with salt. I set it back on the stove on the warm burner but I didn’t leave it on. This is the moment where a wood stove makes this task easier. Once the potatoes were soft (another five minutes or so) I took one from the pot to sample and to decide for myself if it was fit for the Queen.

The recipe is referring to Queen Victoria who was still the reigning monarch for Canada. She celebrated her Golden Jubilee (50 years on the throne) in 1887 and her Diamond Jubilee (60 years) in 1897 and died in 1901.

John Goldie

John Goldie

Mr. John Goldie is the husband of Margaret Rogers another recipe contributor. John Goldie was born in 1822 in Ayr, Scotland. He was 22 when his parents emigrated to Canada and he came with them. In 1858, at age 35 he married Elizabeth Alexander and they had a son also named John. Unfortunately Elizabeth died in 1868 and so he married Margaret Rogers in 1870. They had two children and adopted another. His eldest son died when he was 22 of phthisis pulmonalis which was another name for consumption which is now called tuberculosis. John Goldie was a successful businessman. He went into partnership with Hugh McCulloch to buy a foundry which they named Goldie & McCulloch. It was a major employer in Galt making all sorts of machinery including large boilers and engines used in local factories. One engine worked for over 80 years at The Kaufman Rubber Factory in Berlin (Kitchener) Ontario and part of it can be seen at the Waterloo Region Museum. John Goldie supported many causes in Galt including the hospital.

The man endorsing this recipe is probably Richard S. Strong. He was born in 1825 in England and married Mary Dowker. I imagine he is connected to Goldie in many ways but one is through Gore Insurance. Both Strong and McCulloch were involved with it. So why are these prominent men supplying a recipe for boiled potatoes? When would they ever cook? Groups of men sometimes went on sport hunting trips together and it is possible they cooked for themselves. I’ve always imagined them staying at a lodge that provided some of the amenities of a hotel but perhaps they endured more rustic conditions including doing the cooking.

Boiled potato fresh from the pot.

Boiled potato fresh from the pot.

The smell of boiling potatoes transports me to childhood. I remember smelling the potatoes boiling and knowing supper would soon be ready. We ate a lot of boiled and baked potatoes. My mother never peeled potatoes telling us the skins were good for us. Except for the salt this recipe is essentially how my mother made potatoes so I expected Mr. John Goldie’s potatoes to taste the same.

Boiled Potato -- smashed to eat.

Boiled Potato — smashed to eat.

However, the salt changes the potatoes into a royal feast. I used a bit too much salt for just four potatoes so I’d suggest easing back on the last handful but this technique is well worth adopting if you can eat salt. This way you can eat the potatoes without any extras like butter, gravy or sour cream. I smashed my potato to eat but of course you can eat it any way that suits your style.

TO COOK POTATOES
Mr. John Goldie, Endorsed by Mr. Strong

Select of nearly equal size, cut out the eyes and put in a pot with cold water to cover them, put in a good handful of salt Boil until with a fork you ascertain they are sufficiently done. They should be slightly hard at centre, pour off the water and sprinkle a handful of salt on top shaking the pot so as to allow some of the salt to pass down among the potatoes; replace the pot on fire with the lid closed until the potatoes are found to be soft centre, then take off the lid to allow the steam to pass off. Then serve immediately. If the potatoes are of a good quality you will have a feast for the Queen.

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Day 86: Boiled Cabbage

The meat section of The New Galt Cook Book (1898) includes the statement that pork should be eaten only in winter. It snowed again today so clearly we are still in winter in Southern Ontario despite the date. Therefore I’m going to make Boiled Cabbage since it has includes pork. The recipe’s contributor is identified by the initials N. Y. T.

Cabbage is a great winter vegetable. It keeps well and is versatile. No wonder it was a staple among people from cold countries and continued after they moved to North America. From cabbage salads (hot or cold) to sauerkraut (pickled cabbage) to cabbage rolls in all their forms this member of the brassica family appears on tables today and in the past. I suspect this recipe is a staple too somewhere. I’d had this cabbage for a while so I peeled away the rather sad-looking outer leaves and then cut it into four quarters. I removed the stalk from each portion. I think this is what was intended by the recipe writer when she said to “cut in squares”. Can you think of another interpretation because I’m open to suggestions?

Boiled Cabbage bubbling in the pot.

Boiled Cabbage bubbling in the pot.

I put the four chunks of cabbage in a large stewing pot and then I opened the package of ribs I bought yesterday. I was able to get “pork side ribs centre portion strip” at my store so that’s what I used. I’m not sure what that means but I cut the two long strips of ribs into about six sections and lay them around the cabbage in the pot. Then I covered the cabbage and ribs with boiling water and put the pot on the stove. I turned the heat high at first and then lowered it once the water was simmering. I covered the pot and left it to simmer gently for two hours. I checked on it every half hour or so to make sure it didn’t burn or all the liquid boil away. Once the two hours were up, I turned off the heat. There was still some liquid but everything was definitely cooked. I made a plate up for myself with cabbage and some ribs on top.

My serving of boiled cabbage and ribs.

My serving of boiled cabbage and ribs.

I can’t identify N. Y. T. from just initials but I can taste the results of her recipe. As you can see from the picture this is not an appealing looking dish but everything was very tender. The bones were falling from the ribs and the meat was good if plain. The cabbage however was overcooked, at least it was too cooked for my taste. It was also very bland. There is no seasoning mentioned in the recipe but it really needs something. At least pepper and salt and perhaps adding some onion as it cooks. I don’t know if the ribs contributed enough fat to make the cabbage digestible. Pigs have been bred to be leaner with less fat for our cholesterol and fat fearing markets. Pork would have had more fat to it in 1898 and perhaps more flavour. There are several organizations that attempt to maintain the existence of old animal breeds. You can find out more about older types of pigs here.

 

BOILED CABBAGE
N.Y.T.

To boil cabbage, cut the heads in squares, taking out the stalks inside. Treat it like cauliflower, cleansing it. Boil it in broth — that obtained from pork is the best; for cabbage need plenty of fat to make it digestible. The most economical way is to stew it with some ribs of pork, covering both meat and cabbage with boiling water, and cooking them gently for two hours allowing the water gradually to be absorbed and serving the pork on top of the cabbage.

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Day 86: Fresh Salmon Fried

Rainbow Trout

Rainbow Trout

I seem to be finally facing up to some of my most challenging sections of The New Galt Cook Book (1898). Today it is the Fish chapter. I have limited experience cooking fish, and although I know it is good for me, I rarely eat fish. While shopping at my grocery store tonight I noticed that some fresh fish was featured. A small piece of rainbow trout caught my eye and since the price was also small I decided to risk ruining it with my inexperienced piscatorial cooking. So tonight I will attempt Mrs. James Young‘s recipe for Fresh Salmon Fried. Now before you shout “but rainbow trout and salmon are not exactly the same thing”, you should know that the recipe says it will do for all fish cut into steaks.

Rainbow Trout

Rainbow Trout

I’ve also included the general information about Fish found at the beginning of the section. It was likely contributed by one of the editors of the cook book. Although my fish was not an entire fish, I did my best to check that it was fresh. The flesh of my piece of rainbow trout was firm and odourless.

I decided to try the simplest version of the recipe and dredged the piece of trout in flour. The fish was slightly thinner than 3/4 of an inch but I felt it was still thick enough to work with this recipe. My brother goes fishing and enjoys eating fish too. He’s advised me to let the floured fish sit a bit and then dredge it again in flour. This helps it form a bit more of a crust when fried.

Dredged with Flour

Dredged with Flour

I followed his advice and then put a bit of butter in a frying pan. Once the butter was hot I placed the trout in the pan skin side down. I kept the heat on medium and let it fry until I could see the visible flesh of the fish starting to change colour part way through. I turned the piece of fish over and let if fry on the other side. I flipped it back over to check if it was done. I didn’t have a fin to check so I used methods I’ve seen in cook books and on cooking shows. Instead I used a fork to check the consistency of the flesh. The fish was starting to flake and only a tiny bit of the centre was still translucent.

In the frying pan.

In the frying pan.

I removed the fish from the pan, knowing it would continue to cook a little as it rested. I can’t tell you how long the piece of rainbow trout was in the pan but I don’t think it was even 10 minutes. I garnished it with lemon and parsley as recommended elsewhere in the Fish section and tried to get brave enough to taste.

I have talked about Mrs. James Young (Margaret “Maggie” McNaught) several times and will write about her in future. Born in Scotland and raised in Brant County she was married in 1858 when she was 20 years old. The couple moved to Galt and lived there the rest of their lives. Mrs. James Young contributed many many recipes for The Galt Cook Book. Her husband was a member of the federal parliament at the time so she was a prominent person in her church and in the town of Galt Ontario. GrandHeritageRiver20th_WebThe Grand River flows through Galt and some sections of the river are still considered a good place to fish, along with all the many small rivers, lakes, and streams in the area. Twenty years ago this year, the Grand River was designated as one of Canada’s Heritage Rivers. You can read more about The Grand here and watch for special events during the year.

Rainbow Trout ready to eat.

Rainbow Trout ready to eat.

Sometimes the simplest cooking methods are the best. This fish was absolutely delicious and you know it is high praise coming from someone who doesn’t like fish. I managed not to over or under cook my precious piece of rainbow trout. It was flaky and moist and the only other flavour other than mild fish was butter. s I type this up I realized I forgot to even season it with pepper and salt! If you don’t already eat fish prepared in this simple way, then be sure to try it the next time you find a nice fresh salmon or trout fillet or steak.

FRESH SALMON FRIED.
Mrs. James Young

Cut the slice three-fourths of an inch thick, dredge with flour, or dip them in eggs and crumbs, fry a light brown. This mode will do for all fish cut into steak. Season with salt and pepper.

 

FISH

Fish is either boiled, broiled, baked or fried. In all cases it is to be treated on the same principle as meat. When put to boil in cold water, fish, like meat, will part with it best substances, which will go to enrich the water it is cooked in. To make a soup of it, or a fish jelly (which is very delicate), this would be the right way but to boil fish that is to be eaten, it is necessary to put it into boiling water. To know the right moment when a fish is done is not such an easy affair as you might think. An underdone fish is disgusting while an overdone one is tasteless and mostly tough. After fifteen minutes from the time a fish has been put on the fire one has to be on the watch. If the fish is small or thin it most likely will not stand a second’s  longer cooking. If large it may need half an hour to be well done, or even more. Experience and a certain fine instinct have to guide you. One sign – and a pretty safe one – is to try a fin. If it gives way easily to a slight pull, the fish is done. Fish, like meat which is to be dished up, has to be kept simmering rather than boiling after its first immersion in lively boiling water. When it is to be cleaned it must not be kept soaking in cold water. Some salt-water fishes are better for sprinkling them with salt inside and outside for about one hour before cooking them. The salt, of course, has to be washed off again. Be sure that your fish is always as fresh as possible. Never buy a fish whose eyes are dull-looking, or the gills of which are not of a fine red colour and the flesh firm and odorless.

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Day 84: Wine Soup

I’m back to the Cookery for the Sick section of the 1898 New Galt Cook Book. I’m not exactly sick, just dealing with several days of back ache and I’m tired. However, several of my coworkers were feeling decidedly unwell today and I’m wondering if a nice bowl of Wine Soup would perk them up. The recipe was contributed by Mrs. Dr. Stowe of Toronto and it looks quick and easy to make.

I toasted two slices of bread. Confession time — I used a modern toaster. It is challenging to toast on an electric stove. The 1898 way would be to set up a special toaster — a bit like the ones you can buy for camping — on the top of the wood stove. It could hold four pieces of bread. Another less expensive toaster held one slice of bread at the end of a long handle. A version of this type is still available for campers. It was held over the hot embers (and sometimes the flames) after one of the stove lids was lifted. Many people skipped the paraphernalia and just placed the sliced bread on the hot cookstove top and turned them over when they were toasted on one side.

When my toast was ready I cut off the crusts and broke it into pieces in a bowl. I sprinkled some sugar over it and then poured one cup of hot wine on top. This simple “meal” was ready to eat. Or was it? Was this supposed to go on top of some soup or was this mixture the soup? I decided to sample it the way I’d made it and then decide.

Dr. Emily Stowe  Source: Archives of Ontario/ACC13993-8 © Public Domain nlc-12039

Dr. Emily Stowe
Source: Archives of Ontario/ACC13993-8
© Public Domain  nlc-12039

Mrs. Dr. Stowe of Toronto is probably the famous Emily Stowe — the doctor and suffragist. Emily Howard Jennings was born on May 1, 1831 in Norwich Township (Oxford County) in Ontario to American born parents Hannah and Solomon Jennings. Emily had about five sisters and was raised in the Quaker tradition. She married English-born John Stowe in 1853 and had three children Ann Augusta, John Howard and Frank Jennings Stowe. The family was living in Toronto when the oldest was born but the younger two children were born in Mount Pleasant (Brant County). After her husband became ill, Emily decided to become a doctor but was unable to be trained in Canada as no medical school here would accept female students. She studied in the United States as a homeopathic doctor and set up a practice in Toronto. Later she and Jenny Trout were accepted to medical school in Canada as seen in this Heritage Minute. She continued to fight for improved conditions for women as well as the right to vote. She died in 1903 many years before women could vote but her daughter and granddaughters and all the women after them in Canada benefited from the battles fought by Emily Stowe. You can read more about her here.

The Wine Soup is quite edible and grew on me with each sip from my spoon. Choose a wine the patient likes and if their throat is sore I’d suggest watering the wine just a little. Port is a fortified wine and I think it was believed would help build up the blood. The bread and sugar would also help a weak patient receive some calories. The toast becomes soft enough that it is easy to swallow and the hot wine is quite comforting. All in all consider making wine soup the next time you are sick and staying home. After all the recipe has the approval of a famous Victorian doctor.

WINE SOUP
Mrs. Dr. Stowe, Toronto

Take two or three pieces of bread, and toast well; cast away crust scrape off any burnt part and break into soup sifting over them white sugar, then cover it with a cupful of boiling claret or port wine which may be weakened by the addition of a little boiling water, if desired.

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