Tag Archives: Wardlaw

Day 351: Tripe

I am finally going to attempt some of the recipes in the Meats section of the 1898 New Galt Cook Book that use organ meats. I was able to buy some tripe and so I’m starting with Miss Wardlaw‘s recipe simply called Tripe. It is the basis for other recipes. I’m going out tonight so I’m starting this earlier in the day.

Honeycomb Tripe (image from telegraph.co.uk)

Honeycomb Tripe
(image from telegraph.co.uk)

I have never cooked tripe and I’ve never eaten it so this will be an adventure. The first step was to open the package I bought from a local grocery store called Central Fresh Market. It used to be called Central Meat Market and they still often have cuts of meat that other places don’t carry regularly. The label says honeycomb tripe and that’s basically what it resembles. I washed it off and put it in a pot of salted water. I turned the heat up and left it to boil, replenishing the water every so often. After an hour the smell became more obvious and I kept trying to determine why it made me think of farms. It’s not a horrible smell but a bit like standing next to a nice clean cow. Probably not surprising since tripe is the lining of one of the four stomachs of cattle. Apparently it can come from other animals too.

I knew tripe was the stomach – one of the reasons I’d been procrastinating in trying this recipe — but in confirming this I discovered that there is more to know about tripe. First is the cleaning of the tripe. This wikihow site provided lots of information. Mine was very white so I’m going to assume it had been cleaned and bleached. I’m hoping I washed it sufficiently. I think it is well washed since the aroma is cow not chlorine. I also don’t think I’ll need to cook it for five or six hours as it might have already been parboiled. I’m going to keep checking it for tenderness. It does seem that I’ve had a much easier time preparing my tripe than a homemaker in 1898. It was finally tender after two hours. Tripe is meant to be used for other things so I took just a tiny taste.

Miss Wardlaw is familiar to me from the number of sick room recipes she contributed to the cook book. She was Margaret (Maggie) Janet Wardlaw daughter of John Wardlaw and Mary Ann Davidson. Her parents were from Scotland but she was born in 1862 possibly in Oxford County where the family was listed in the 1861 census. By the time she was nine they lived in Galt Ontario where her father was a woollen manufacturer. He was a bronze medal winner for his woollen yarns at the Philadelphia Exposition in 1876. In 1891 Maggie was living at home with her parents and several of her brothers. One is a dentist and she’s a nurse at the hospital in Galt. Although her parents were still living in 1901 the census shows Maggie is living with her brother who is a doctor. It is just the two of them plus a servant. I assume that Maggie is acting as the nurse for her brother’s medical practice. I think by 1911 she’s living in Toronto but I’m not sure and I don’t know how she ended up there. She died of a heart condition in Newmarket in 1931. Her brother Thomas was the person providing details for her death certificate. He’s a commercial agent and living on Scott Street in Toronto so I suspect that’s why Maggie ended up there. Her obituary appears in the Newmarket Era newspaper on October 30, 1931 but doesn’t provide any information.

The taste and texture of tripe is . . . well . . . unique. I thought it would be rubbery and taste “offal” but the texture was soft, tasting more of salt than anything else. Perhaps my water was too salty. I put it aside to cool and will make something with it in the next day or two. I don’t think I’d want to keep it for more than a few days. You’ll find tripe in some Vietnamese, Italian, French and even some British recipes. I’ve seen it on the menu of my favourite Vietnamese restaurants especially in the classic soup base called Pho. Please share your experience with tripe! Have you eaten it? Have you cooked with it?

UPDATE: Just fixed the numbering.

TRIPE
Miss Wardlaw

Wash it thoroughly, boil for five or six hours (in salted water), or until quite tender; it will keep for days and is now ready to be prepared in different ways.

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Day 312: Scraped Beef

Health care has changed and improved in many ways. My mother is currently in hospital experiencing all sorts of innovations that would not have been available in 1898. In Galt Ontario in 1898 people could receive care in the Galt Hospital but families also provided home care for long lasting diseases like tuberculosis or for minor illnesses and injuries. Cookbooks like The New Galt Cook Book (1898) include chapters called Cookery for the Sick. I thought I’d try another of these recipes tonight while I’m healthy enough to make it since some are time consuming and sort of gross. This time it is one called Scraped Beef contributed by Miss Wardlaw.

The first step was to take a piece of steak and scrape it. For some reason I find it hard to figure out the grain of meat but I gave it my best shot. I used a knife and scraped just enough (about 1 tablespoon) meat to make one patty since this recipe really doesn’t sound appealing to me. I got the frying pan hot and put a bit of butter in it and then shaped my beef “pulp” into a thin patty about the size of a toonie. I put it in the pan and fried it on one side and then turned it. I don’t like rare beef so I probably cooked it a bit longer than Miss Wardlaw intended. I’m glad I was allowed to season my patty with salt and pepper before tasting.

I suspect this sort of food was intended to help build up the patient — perhaps helping rebuild their stores of iron (something I need too). Blood transfusions really didn’t exist at this time. Part of the difficulty was the lack of blood typing. Many medical innovations occurred during the horrors of the First World War out of desperation. Here’s a link to general information about this idea and be warned some of the descriptions are very vivid.

Miss Wardlaw contributed a number of sick room recipes to this cook book but she also shared other recipes. I talked about Margaret “Maggie” Janet Wardlaw extensively on Day 281 when I made her Pickled Onions recipe. She was a nurse at the Galt Hospital and would have been very familiar with recipes like Scraped Beef.

Scraped Beef is a surprise. This is good! I wish I’d made another patty. Although this is basically ground beef the texture is much finer. There were no hard bits or strange stringy things which make eating ground beef an adventure for me. I have to set aside my imagination and just eat. However, a scraped beef patty is soft and tastes really good even before the salt and pepper.

 SCRAPED BEEF
Miss Wardlaw

Take a piece of beefsteak and scrape against the grain, form this pulp into rather thin patties. Have the frying-pan hot with a very small piece of butter in it just enough to keep the meat from sticking. Put in the meat, brown nicely, but do not have it overdone. Season with pepper and salt after removing from the fire and serve immediately.

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Day 281: Pickled Onions

I’ve often wonder why jars of mixed pickles always seem to have just one or two pickled onions. It’s a bit like the cans of fruit cocktail with just one cherry. I can’t help you with the fruit cocktail but if you are a fan of Pickled Onions perhaps the recipe in The New Galt Cook Book from 1898 can help. It was contributed by Miss Wardlaw.

One of many companies preparing pickling spice mixtures for sale to grocers.

One of many companies preparing pickling spice mixtures for sale to grocers.

I don’t really like pickled onions so I wanted to test the recipe with just a small amount. I was able to buy a bag of the small white onions at my grocery store. I took a handful and peeled them. Apparently this can be done easily by popping them briefly in boiling water but I did it by hand instead. I put them in a small saucepan with 1 cup vinegar and 1 cup water. I boiled them for 10 minutes and then drained them. I put the boiled onions in a jar. Next I prepared the seasoned vinegar. I put 2 cups vinegar in the saucepan and added 1 dried red pepper and 1 tablespoon of mixed pickling spice. I assumed that the red peppers in the recipe were dried since fresh would need a similar treatment to the onions. What do you think? Did I make the correct decision? I also wasn’t sure about the mixed spices. This instruction leaves room for you to use whatever spices you like but mixed spice and pickling spice are mentioned in the Canadian Grocer trade magazine in 1898. The pickling spice mix I bought in 2014 contained mustard seed, coriander, by leaves, dill seed, fenugreek, cinnamon, ginger, allspice, cayenne pepper, black pepper, cloves and some oil. I added just one small dried chili pod since the mix included it already. I left the spices to boil in the vinegar until the spices were a bit less dehydrated. Should I strain the spices or include them in the jar. I decided to keep everything together and poured it all over the onions in the jar. It was time to follow the usual canning procedures to seal and store the pickled onions but first I wanted to sample one immediately.

Miss Wardlaw is familiar to me from the number of sick room recipes she contributed to the cook book. She was Margaret (Maggie) Janet Wardlaw daughter of John Wardlaw and Mary Ann Davidson. Her parents were from Scotland but she was born in 1862 possibly in Oxford County where the family was listed in the 1861 census. By the time she was nine they lived in Galt Ontario where her father was a woollen manufacturer. He was a bronze medal winner for his woollen yarns at the Philadelphia Exposition in 1876. In 1891 Maggie was living at home with her parents and several of her brothers. One is a dentist and she’s a nurse at the hospital in Galt. Although her parents were still living in 1901 the census shows Maggie is living with her brother who is a doctor. It is just the two of them plus a servant. I assume that Maggie is acting as the nurse for her brother’s medical practice. I think by 1911 she’s living in Toronto but I’m not sure and I don’t know how she ended up there. She died of a heart condition in Newmarket in 1931. Her brother Thomas was the person providing details for her death certificate. He’s a commercial agent and living on Scott Street in Toronto so I suspect that’s why Maggie ended up there. Her obituary appears in the Newmarket Era newspaper on October 30, 1931 but doesn’t provide any information.

I’m not a big fan of pickled onions but I like them better than most cucumber pickles. The onions tasted like onions but the vinegar was interesting and the chili pepper gave it quite the kick! It will be interesting to taste again after a few weeks to see if the onions have absorbed much of the seasoned vinegar. There are many versions of pickled onions. Some use malt vinegar as a base, some are sort of sweet and sour, and then there is Miss Wardlaw’s spicy version. If this 1898 recipe sounds like the kind you like then give them a try. They are easy to make and look nice in a plate of mixed pickles.

 

PICKLED ONIONS
Miss Wardlaw

Get the small white onions, peel them. Boil in vinegar and water, about half and half, for ten minutes; drain, and put in bottles. Have vinegar boiling which is well spiced with red peppers and mixed spices, pour over the onions while boiling.

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Day 242: Wine Whey

I started to type the title of this recipe as Whine Way rather than Wine Whey. The first version is a better reflection of how much whining I’ve been doing about this cough that won’t go away. It is a daily reminder of the summer cold I had a few weeks ago and I can’t seem to get rid of it. I thought this drink or food might soothe my throat or at least make me not notice it as much. The recipe contributed by Miss Wardlaw appears in the Cookery for the Sick section of the 1898 New Galt Cook Book.

I recently discovered milk in glass bottles at my grocery store. I bought some just to see what it would be like and thought it might be good in this recipe. I put 1/2 pint (1 cup) of milk in a small saucepan on the stove and turned on the heat. I had to hunt for a bottle of sherry in the house for this recipe. I keep some around for cooking and usually buy Harvey’s Bristol Cream out of nostalgia. The very first time I tasted it I was being polite while visiting some elderly relatives in Wales. They were distantly related but so welcoming I couldn’t refuse to try their beverage of choice. I checked the Harvey’s website and this drink was around in 1898. In fact they had recently received a royal warrant from Queen Victoria so using Harvey’s Bristol Cream seems appropriate for this recipe.

I poured some sherry into a small wineglass and poured it into the pot when the milk was just starting to boil. I stirred and it started to curd immediately so I took the pan from the heat. I continued to stir until the curds and whey seemed completely separated. I wasn’t sure whether it was the curd or the whey I was to consume so I kept both when I strained my mixture. This type of sherry is quite sweet so I wanted to taste both items before adding any sugar. I decided to start with the curds. Adding an acid like lemon juice, vinegar, rennet or sherry to milk or cream causes it to separate into curds and whey. Usually it is the curds that are used to make cheese or just a simple cottage cheese. I’ve made that sort of cottage cheese a number of times with vinegar and really like it. I’ve never tried it with sherry. The curds were an unappetizing grey brown colour but they tasted okay — just a bit sweet. I wasn’t sure what to expect with the whey but suspected that it is what I was really supposed to consume. I gathered a bit of bravery and prepared to taste Wine Whey.

Miss Wardlaw is Margaret “Maggie” Jane Wardlaw. I’ve written about her a couple of times since she contributed a number of recipes for the sick room. That’s not surprising since she was a trained nurse.

Wine Whey is really good — well if you don’t mind cream sherry. It’s not as strong as sherry on its own and drinking it hot was wonderfully comforting. I suspect I will sleep well tonight. I’m not sure I’d like it as much if I’d made it with lemon or vinegar.

I’ve been trying to figure out why this would be served to a sick person but think it could be a way to provide some of the healthful qualities of milk without the part that contributes to congestion or can be difficult to digest. I’m sensitive to the protein in milk but feel that wine whey might be okay.

WINE WHEY
Miss Wardlaw

Heat half a pint of milk to the boiling point and pour into it a wineglassful of sherry; stir these; as soon as the curd separates remove from the fire and strain. Sweeten if desired. The whey can be similarly separated by lemon juice, vinegar or rennet. With rennet whey use salt instead of sugar.

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Day 184: Arrowroot Pudding

I’m still not feeling great so I’m going to make something that sounds easy to make and to eat. It’s Arrowroot Pudding using the recipe Miss Wardlaw contributed to the 1898 New Galt Cook Book.

British Class Royal Style Arrow Root Flour

British Class Royal Style Arrow Root Flour

I’m using the arrowroot powder I bought a number of months ago when it was still winter. According to The Canadian Grocer magazine in 1898, arrowroot was coming from Bermuda and St. Vincent in the Caribbean. I put a tablespoon (2 teaspoons) of the powdered arrowroot in a bowl with 1 dessertspoon (2 teaspoons) of sugar and then added 1 tablespoon of milk. I put the 1/2 pint (1 cup) minus a tablespoon of milk in a saucepan and cut the peel from a lemon and put the rind in with the milk. I boiled the milk and once it was boiled I took out the lemon rind and added some nutmeg. Then I poured the lemon flavoured milk over the arrowroot mixture. I stirred well and left it to cool a bit. Meanwhile I separated 2 eggs. I beat the yolks and added them to the cooled milk mixture. I whipped the egg whites and then folded them into the rest. I poured this into a greased baking dish and put it in the preheated 350 F. oven. I pulled it out after 10 minutes. I wasn’t sure if I was to eat it hot or cold so I’m trying it both ways.

Miss Wardlaw is a somewhat familiar contributor of recipes in this cook book. She’s one of the main women sharing recipes suitable for serving to patients. Margaret “Maggie” Janet Wardlaw was born to Mary Ann Davidson and John Wardlaw in 1861 probably in Oxford county as her family shows up in the 1861 census there. Maggie was likely named for her father’s sister who lived with them later in her life. Her parents were born in Scotland but were in Canada by the time Maggie was born. Her father was a woollen manufacturer and her eldest brother was already an engineer in 1871. Her next oldest brother became a doctor and in the 1891 census her younger brother is a dentist and Maggie is a nurse in the hospital.  By 1901 she is living with her widowed doctor brother and is no longer listed as a nurse. They appear in the 1902 booklet about Galt Collegiate and she’s listed as a 1876 graduate and a resident of Galt. She lived in Galt until her parents’ deaths in the early 20th century but I’m not sure what she did afterwards. Her brother had remarried by then. She died in Newmarket Ontario in 1931 and since her brother is the informant on her death certificate I’m assuming she lived with him at least in her later years. As far as I can tell she never married.

Arrowroot Pudding tastes pretty good, at least it is better than I expected. The lemon and nutmeg flavour is very nice and it isn’t too sweet. Initially it was quite liquid with a slightly crispy almost meringue top. Later as it cooled it still didn’t set up as much as I’d hoped. The arrowroot seemed to be on the bottom, the milky liquid in the middle, and the egg white on the top. I’m not sure what I did wrong (if anything) but I think it might be worth another shot sometime. Perhaps it will set up overnight like the blancmange a week ago. I’ve heard of infusing with vanilla bean but not lemon rind. I think this is at least the second time I’ve had to use the lemon rind in milk technique and I really like it. It adds something special to the milk used in desserts and it’s something I’d like to take into my modern cooking.

 

ARROWROOT PUDDING
Miss Wardlaw

One tablespoonful arrowroot, half pint milk, two eggs, one dessertspoonful sugar, a little nutmeg and lemon rind. First mix the arrowroot and sugar with one tablespoonful of milk. Boil the rest of the milk with the lemon rind (when the milk boils remove the rind), pour the boiling milk over the arrowroot. When slightly cool add the well beaten yelks of the eggs and mix thoroughly. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, add as lightly as possible to the mixture and bake in the oven for ten minutes.

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Day 90: Oatmeal Gruel

Sandwiched between the chapter on doughnuts and the drinks part of the 1898 New Galt Cook Book is a section called Oatmeal. So far I’ve made the Milk Porridge recipe but tonight I’m trying the Oatmeal Gruel using Miss Wardlaw‘s recipe. I wasn’t surprised to find oatmeal in a cook book from Galt but I am baffled by the number of recipes for gruel rather than oatmeal porridge.

I knew I was going out tonight to speak to  a women’s group much like the one that created this cook book. I was feeling a bit under the weather today and so a simple, and probably bland, recipe appealed to me. I also knew I had time to soak the oatmeal before I left the house and could prepare the gruel when I returned home. Since I expect this to be awful I decided to make just half the recipe. I put 1 cup (1/2 pint) of my coarse Scottish style oatmeal in a bowl with 2 cups (1/2 quart) of water. I left it on the counter to soak while I was away. I returned home after speaking to a wonderful group of women about this cook book. The oatmeal had been soaking for about four hours so it was ready to strain. My strainer has been taking a beating lately and so I decided to try an alternative. I simply picked up the oatmeal in my hand and squeezed out the liquid. I kept doing that until I’d removed all the oatmeal. It was at this point I wondered if there was anything I could do with this “used” oatmeal since it is the liquid I wanted. I set it aside and did a final straining through my fingers as I poured the liquid into a saucepan. I suspect my method of straining is what people did who couldn’t afford a kitchen full of equipment. Besides … it worked!

I set the saucepan on medium heat and brought it to the boil. At this point I tasted the liquid, and although it was watery, it tasted simply of oatmeal. It wasn’t too bad. I thought that perhaps it should be a bit thicker so I let it boil for a few minutes and it did thicken somewhat. I started to add the nutmeg, sugar and salt. This has to be by taste. I didn’t put very much nutmeg or salt in and then added about a teaspoon of sugar. I tasted a tiny bit and seemed okay so I proceeded to the next step. I put 1 tablespoon of cream in a glass and then poured in the gruel. I stirred and steeled myself to taste Oatmeal Gruel for the first time.

What do you think of when you hear the word gruel? I suspect it is not a positive image. I think of Dickens’ Oliver Twist and Bronte’s Jane Eyre both of them orphans living in terrible situations. However, based on other recipes in this section of the cook book, gruels are for sick people, particularly those with digestive complaints. This probably would help someone who can’t manage solid food for whatever reason.

This invalid feeder is part of the collection of the Museum of Healthcare in Kingston.

This invalid feeder is part of the collection of the Museum of Healthcare in Kingston.

It could be drunk, spoon fed or even put in an invalid feeder sometimes called a pap cup or boat. They were a bit like a child’s sippy cup since they were partially covered and had a spout for drinking. Some look a bit like a gravy boat. They could be used for liquid or semi liquid food. The patient sips from the spout or the person nursing could just slowly pour the liquid into a patient’s mouth as long as they were capable of swallowing it. They were also a way to introduce food or “pap” to a baby. I visited the Museum of Health Care in Kingston Ontario this winter and they have all sorts of interesting artifacts and exhibits. Check it out here.

A glass of gruel

A glass of gruel

I guess if I needed digestible food then Miss Wardlaw’s Oatmeal Gruel would be okay but I missed the texture of oatmeal. I think I prefer the gruel without sugar, salt, or nutmeg. The nutmeg is an interesting idea for oatmeal. I’m accustomed to cinnamon with oatmeal so I might try using nutmeg the next time I make porridge. Sipping gruel or even using a spoon is a bit like trying some of the meal replacement drinks and protein shakes. There’s just something missing. I continued to sip as it cooled and it was still palatable if not exciting.

For all my discussion of the palatability of Oatmeal Gruel it is important to realize how important these types of recipes were for so many women in 1898. Their loved ones could die from diseases that are preventable or treatable in 2014. Just like today they were desperate to try to keep their loved ones alive even when it seemed there was no hope. Getting some nourishment into the sick or injured person could mean they would live. Miss Wardlaw was a nurse and would have lots of experience with this sort of feeding. Three weeks ago I made her recipe for another easy to eat food called panada. Margaret “Maggie” Wardlaw was born in 1862 to Scottish born parents. She grew up in Galt Ontario and it looks like she was the only girl in the family. The eldest of her three brothers became a doctor. Eventually after working as a nurse, she ends up living with this brother and perhaps acting as his nurse in his practice. At some point she ends up in Newmarket and that’s where she dies at the age of 70.

OATMEAL GRUEL

Miss Wardlaw

Soak one pint of oatmeal in one quart of water for some hours, then strain and boil. Flavor with nutmeg, sugar and salt. Have two tablespoons of cream in a tumbler. Pour in the gruel, stir and serve.

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Day 66: Chicken Panada

The thought of making anything sweet or complicated isn’t very appealing today so I decided to check out the Cookery for the Sick section again in The New Galt Cook Book (1898). I’m not feeling great so it seems appropriate to try something that won’t hurt my sore throat. I decided to make Chicken Panada, a recipe contributed by Miss Wardlaw. It sounds disgusting but according to this site a panada is a “bread soup”.

Dishing out the Chicken Panada

Dishing out the Chicken Panada

I realized that the recipe used equal quantities of crumbs, cream, and broth. Although I didn’t care if it was awful, I also didn’t want to be stuck with it or to waste ingredients so I looked up the equivalent measure for a gill and it turns out that one gill is 1/2 cup. This seemed like a reasonable amount. I put 1/2 cup of 35% cream and 1/2 cup bread crumbs in a small saucepan. I shook in some salt and pepper, stirred, and turned the burner on low. I heated everything but it didn’t exactly reach boiling as the two main ingredients became more like a dough. I added 1/2 cup of broth and things improved. I stirred it all together and broke up any lumps. Once the panada was hot I removed the pot from the heat and put it all into a small bowl. This was going to be my supper.

Miss Wardlaw is likely Margaret “Maggie” Janet Wardlaw and she is listed in the 1891 census as a nurse in the hospital. She was born in 1862 to Scottish born parents John and Mary Ann (Davidson) Wardlaw. Her father was a wool dealer but her older brother was a doctor and her younger brother was a dentist. The household also included her father’s unmarried sister Margaret. By 1901 Maggie is no longer listed as having an occupation in the census but she is living with her brother the doctor. Perhaps she is the nurse for his practice. There is also a domestic servant in the household. Miss Wardlaw never married and she died in 1931 at the age of 70.

Chicken Panada

Chicken Panada

I suspect none of you are going to believe me but … I liked Miss Wardlaw’s Chicken Panada! It was warm, comforting, and was easy to swallow. If you find the texture of baby cereal or oatmeal porridge revolting then you will not like panada. However, if you like creamy grainy foods such as porridge then this might just appeal to you.

CHICKEN PANADA
Miss Wardlaw

One gill broth, one gill bread crumbs, one gill cream, pepper and salt to taste; place together cream and bread crumbs, salt and pepper, allow to come to the boil,then add the chicken broth (which has been previously made), allow to heat for a few minutes and serve hot.

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